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When KEGG annotations as of 2006 are considered, the agreement increases from 14.2% (Fig. Countdown Package For Sale Top-Rated BAGS Handbags Sophie Anderson Buy Cheap Low Cost CFFdET
) to 15.5% for four-field EC number assignments (Fig. Outlet Supply Cashmere Modal Scarf Abstract Polygons Blue by VIDA VIDA Discount 2018 New ji4Gp4yu
) and from 18.2% (Fig. 2B ) to 20.1% for three-field EC number assignments (Fig. 2D ). In contrast, there is no significant change in the level of disagreement. After one year, the average percentage of sequences in a proteome with four-field (three-field) EC numbers assigned by KEGG, including agreeing, disagreeing and unique annotations, grew from 18.4% (21.6%) to 20.3% (23.8%), with 67% (80%) of that growth corresponding to agreeing annotations and only 2% (1%) corresponding to disagreeing annotations. Thus, most of the newly added enzyme function annotations in KEGG agree with predictions made by EFICAz a year before. About 31% (19%) of the growth corresponds to unique four-field (three-field) EC number annotations made by KEGG, which are analyzed in the next section.

Figure 2 shows that the average fraction of sequences per proteome that is only annotated by KEGG with four-field (three-field) EC numbers increased from 3.3% to 3.9% (2.3% to 2.7%) after one year. Still, unique EFICAz predictions are more numerous than unique KEGG annotations, even when KEGG annotations as of 2006 are considered. The average fraction of sequences per proteome with three-field (four-field) EC number assignments made only by EFICAz is 4.0 (1.7) times higher than the fraction corresponding to KEGG as of 2005, and 2.7 (1.1) times higher than the fraction corresponding to KEGG as of 2006.

When we analyze the unique predictions in genomes from different domains of life, the most extreme difference between the number of EFICAz-based and KEGG-based unique assignments corresponds to Eukarya. For eukaryotic genomes, the average fraction of unique EFICAz predictions ranges from 4.0 (Fig. 2C ) to 10.9 (Fig. 2B ) times higher than the average fraction of unique KEGG annotations. Before suggesting an explanation for this discrepancy, we should mention that one of the principles used by KEGG curators for enzyme function annotation is the transfer of annotation between orthologs, which are identified by sequence similarity with consideration of the positional coupling of genes on the chromosome [ Womens Nature Grain Melete Purse Mh15z Purse Joop Original Sale Online Clearance Real Outlet Shop For R6T36HaUL
]. Thus, a probable reason for the low number of KEGG-based unique assignments in eukaryotes is that in these organisms, with only a few exceptions [ Free Shipping Collections Icon embellished shoulder bag Black Versace Cheap Sale Visa Payment Cheap Outlet Discount 2018 New II4XHnmK
], genes do not appear to be organized in operons, preventing KEGG annotators from making use of the conservation of local genomic context (such as gene order or gene neighboring) to validate orthology-based annotations of enzyme function. This observation raises the question as to how much the recall of EFICAz would improve if we account for the conservation of local genomic context. We would expect an increased coverage for archaeal and bacterial genomes; although, evidently, this component of the method would not be relevant for enzyme function inference of single sequences.

Biology Dictionary
By Editors

Spirochete Definition

A spirochete is a type of bacteria within the phylum Spirochetes. The spirochetes are so called because they are very long, thin shape and helically coiled , hence they have a spiraling corkscrew shape. The helical shape is one of three morphological categories of the prokaryotes .

The spirochetes are a diverse phylum, occupying a wide range of ecological niches ; some are free-living in aquatic environments, while some can only survive by parasitizing the cells of other organisms. Most are anaerobic (can sustain themselves without the presence of oxygen), although certain species are aerobic. They are very difficult to culture and are gram-negative , meaning they are not easily visible.

Although some play an important role as symbionts within the stomach of other animals, many members of the spirochete class are responsible for common diseases such as Lyme disease and syphilis. Some spirochetes have also been found present within marine bivalves although with no apparent positive or negative effects; this neutral relationship is called a Mens Silk Faille Bow Tie Barneys New York Cheap Best DV9AbWeCR
.

Spirochetes are distinguishable from other bacteria in that they move with unique endoflagella . The flagella are tightly wound around the corkscrew shape of the bacteria, between the outer membrane and the cell wall, within the periplasm . Together, the endoflagella make up a structure called the axial filament . The axial filament is rotated by the rotation of the flagella, causing the spirochete to move with a twisting motion. This method of motility is unique to the spirochetes and—much like the way a corkscrew can penetrate the cork of a wine bottle—allows them to move through viscous materials such as mucus, blood, mud and host connective tissues including cartilage and dental plaque; external flagella do not allow effective movement through these mediums.

Additionally, the presence of endoflagella allows the spirochetes to move backward and forward with equal ease, this allows them to move freely in their environment and target the best site of host attachment or resources.

The image shows the spiral structure of the spirochete form (top) and a cross section (bottom) with the following labeled: 1-Bacterial Cell Envelope; 2- Cytoplasm ; 3-Flagella; 4-The Attachment Point of the Flagella.

Spirochetes are best known by their prevalence as causative agents of disease. Three genera contain pathogenic species:

Treponema Leptospira Borrelia:

Lyme disease is a common disease, transmitted by tick bites after they have been attached for at least 24 hours. Usually a small rash appears on the body, which expands over several days. As the disease progresses, symptoms can include severe headaches, neck stiffness, loss of muscle use in the face, pains and numbing of the hands and feet, palpitations and irregular heartbeat, arthritis, and inflammation of the brain and spiral chord. In some cases Lyme disease is fatal.

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